NASA contamination at Santa Susanna Field Laboratory: Documentary “In the Dark of the Valley” airs November 14

From MSNBC

A Southern California mother discovers that the Santa Susana Field Lab, the site of one of the largest nuclear accidents in U.S. history, is located only 7 miles from her home. Concealed from the public eye for 20 years and never fully cleaned up, she grapples with the idea that the site may be responsible for exposing her daughter and community to cancer-causing radioactive waste. The feature documentary, directed by Nicholas Mihm, airs Sunday, November 14th at 10 p.m. ET on MSNBC.
 
More information about this documentary here:
https://www.msnbc.com/darkofthevalley

Trailer: https://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/watch/-in-the-dark-of-the-valley-official-trailer-123022917987

https://data.nbcstations.com/national/KNBC/la-nuclear-secret/

New Mexico: ‘Hundreds of thousands, if not millions’ of birds died during 2020 USAF-SpaceX 5G exercise

Posted on Smart Meter Harm

January 19, 2022

“We’ve never seen anything like it.”

Martha Desmond/New Mexico State University

“The scary thing is this may be an indication of the future.”


Martha Desmond/New Mexico State University

White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

“The military needs a reliable communication system at all times to protect and defend the country from potential threats.” –Tesmanian, September 24, 2020

In August 2020, an AT&T 5G antenna array at White Sands Missile Range went operational, providing “connectivity” for Advanced Battle Management Systems (ABMS) Onramp 2 on August 27.

— Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS) is an interconnected battle network – the digital architecture or foundation – which collects, processes and shares data relevant to warfighters in order to make better decisions faster in the kill chain. In order to achieve all-domain superiority, it requires that individual military activities not simply be de-conflicted, but rather integrated – activities in one domain must enhance the effectiveness of those in another domain.

Source: U.S. Air Force photo by SSgt Charlye Alonso
dvidshub.net/image/6337680/advanced-battle-management-system-onramp-2

Birds began dying in “unprecedented” numbers there in August 2020.


Three dusky flycatchers, a Cordilleran flycatcher, and a Townsend’s warbler, specimens collected Sept. 14 in the Sandias. Photo by Jenna McCullough.
https://edgewood.news/scientists-mass-bird-deaths-likely-related-to-cold/

From the Las Cruces Sun-News
September 12, 2020

It is terribly frightening,” Desmond said. “We’ve never seen anything like this. … We’re losing probably hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of migratory birds.”In August, large numbers of  birds were found dead at White Sands Missile Range and at the White Sands National Monument in what was thought to be an isolated incident, Desmond said. 
https://www.lcsun-news.com/story/news/2020/09/12/mass-deaths-migratory-birds-new-mexico-environment/5780282002/

The Department of the Interior warned in 2014 about the deadly effects of RF-EMF on birds.
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/us_doi_comments.pdf

Research has shown that EMF frequencies affect their navigation and disorient birds. https://kompetenzinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ki_beesbirdsandmankind_screen.pdf

In addition, “non-lethal” military research (Craviso and Chatterjee, 2008) used RF-EMF to cause skeletal muscle contraction.


Pixabay / Science Times
https://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/27311/20200916/thousands-birds-mysteriously-drop-dead-new-mexico.htm

Then, in September 2020, the U.S. Air Force conducted a joint live-fire exercise with SpaceX.

The bird deaths increased.

From the Tesmanian
September 24, 2020

U.S. Air Force Chief for Acquisition Dr. Will Roper, who serves as the principal adviser for technology research and development, met with reporters to discuss a live-fire military exercise that took place early this month, Investors news reports. During the conference, Roper shared SpaceX’s Starlink network was tested during the live-fire exercise as part of the military’s Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS). – “What I’ve seen from Starlink has been impressive and positive,” he told reporters on Wednesday. “They’re cleverly engineered satellites cleverly deployed. So, there’s a lot to learn from how they’re designed and I think that there’s a lot we can learn from them.”Roper shared that the Air Force connected Starlink to a “variety of air and terrestrial assets”. Starlink terminals are hooked to the cockpit of a Boeing (BA) KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft to assess the network’s performance while the airplanes fly.DoD plans to depend even more on satellites under its new “All Domain Operations” war-fighting doctrine. The strategy will require air, land, sea, space and cyberspace assets to network directly with each other. They will pass data and intel among them and perhaps even activate each other’s weapons. https://www.tesmanian.com/blogs/tesmanian-blog/starlink-airforce
Also, 
https://www.investors.com/news/spacex-starlink-impressed-air-force-in-big-live-fire-exercise/

From the Las Cruces Sun-News

After [August], however, came reports of birds behaving strangely and dying in numerous locations in Doña Ana County, Jemez Pueblo, Roswell, Socorro and other locations statewide.The affected birds have included warblers, sparrows, swallows, blackbirds, flycatchers, and the western wood pewee.A number of these species are already in trouble,” Desmond said. “They are already experiencing huge population declines and then to have a traumatic event like this is – it’s devastating.” 
On Saturday, Desmond was joined by Trish Cutler, a wildlife biologist at WSMR, and two NMSU students for an initial evaluation of the carcasses.Desmond said her team also began catching and evaluating living specimens on Friday as residents find birds behaving strangely and gathering in large groups before dying. 
People have been reporting that the birds look sleepy … they’re just really lethargic,” Cutler said. “One thing we’re not seeing is our resident birds mixed in with these dead birds. We have resident birds that live here, some of them migrate and some of them don’t, but we’re not getting birds like roadrunners or quail or doves.” 
On the other hand, numerous migratory species are dying rapidly and it is not immediately clear why, although  the cause appears to be recent. Desmond said the birds had moulted, replacing their feathers in preparation for their flight south, “and you have to be healthy to do that; but somewhere after that, as they initiated their migratory route, they got in trouble.

iNaturalist created the Southwest Avian Mortality Project
inaturalist.org/projects/southwest-avian-mortality-project

Naturalist Jenna McCullough:
“…[O]ne video on Twitter recorded by local journalist Austin Fisher stood out to me: several dozen swallows dead in an arroyo in Velarde, approximately 40 miles north of Santa Fe. It was only when I reached out to Austin for the purposes of this report that I realized the video wasn’t taken the week before during the cold snap, but rather the previous night, on 13 September. To see it for myself, fellow ornithology grad student, Nick Vinciguerra, and I drove the hour and a half north that night.When we arrived at midnight, we found a macabre scene. Several hundred Violet-green Swallows were strewn across the bank of the Rio Grande. Dozens of birds had stuffed themselves into the few natural cavities, [people disabled by electromagnetic sensitivity often report that being on the ground, even burrowing into the ground, provides relies from the RF-EMF emissions] and many more were dead amongst the vegetation. In total, we found 305 individuals of six species, all of which were insectivores: 258 Violet-green Swallows, 35 Wilson’s Warblers, six Bank Swallows, two Cliff Swallows, one Northern Rough-winged Swallow, a MacGillivray’s Warbler, and two Western Wood-Pewees. These proportions are similar to what was reported by researchers at NMSU.
https://www.aba.org/the-data-behind-mysterious-bird-deaths-in-new-mexico/

Photo by Jenna McCullough / American Birding Association

The 305 individuals laid out at the Museum of Southwestern Biology that Nick Vinciguerra and I collected from Velarde, NM on 14 Sep 2020. All individuals will be deposited as specimens in the museum’s Bird Division for future research and education.

Ms. McCullough examined some possible causes in her article but did not mention the military 5G deployment and exercise as a possible cause, in her twitter comments, or news media comments. It’s possible the military exercises were not publicized, Reporter Austin Fisher dismissed 5G as a cause in his twitter video comments without giving any reason, and supported a cold snap as the reason despite that temperature drop had occurred the week before.

Audubon wrote an article which also did not consider the military 5G exercises. audubon.org/news/study-starvation-and-freak-snow-storm-caused-southwests-mass-bird-die
In fact, it published an article in January 2020 calling 5G harm to birds a “myth” and conspiracy theory, and excluded a number of widely known experts in RF-EMF impacts.
audubon.org/news/no-5g-radio-waves-do-not-kill-birds
The organization also urges the public to download its Audubon Bird Guide App for smartphones.

The New Mexico Department of Fish and Game released their conclusion in a press release December 4, 2020, which did not mention at all the Los Alamos Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS) or 5G life-fire exercise, much less as a possible factor, despite its close work with Los Alamos and White Sands Missile Range in its investigation — see below. The state would have been informed, too.

The single abnormality shared by nearly all birds was body condition ranging from poor to severely emaciated. These observations are evidence of physical exertion without nourishment to support recovery, including:the large breast muscles controlling birds’ wings were severely shrunken;kidney failure was apparent in many of the birds;stomachs and intestines were empty of foodstuffs;many intestines contained small amounts of blood, which is one of the effects of starvation;fat deposits, the stored energy for migration, were depleted; andlung tissues were irritated.The USGS National Wildlife Health Center, located in Madison, Wis., is renowned for the thoroughness of the diagnostic tests for wildlife disease diagnosis and management….From the lab reports, Department biologists know that migrating birds entered New Mexico in poor body condition and some birds were already succumbing to starvation. The unusual winter storm exacerbated conditions, likely causing birds to become  disoriented and fly into objects and buildings. Some were struck by vehicles and many landed on the ground where cold temperatures, ice, snow and predators killed them.The Department would also like to thank all of the partner organizations who were essential to this process. Partners include the: …White Sands Missile Range, … Los Alamos National Laboratories ….
https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/NMDGF/bulletins/2afbc3e?reqfrom=share

Other states are trialing AT&T 5G equipment for military multi-platform communication, including Monterey, California. These areas will likely see bird deaths as well.

This ecological catastrophe must be stopped.

The price for the “protection” and “defense” is the Earth itself, the Earth’s well-being, and the Earth’s future. No reasonable or sane person would ever pay that price. No sane person would ever sign a death warrant for the birds on the planet, but the birds and the insects, in particular, will be decimated by 5G and existing RF-EMF radiation. Those who don’t know this or won’t admit this haven’t done their research. When that is a major entity such as Audubon, that is the grossest of negligence and possibly a conflict of interest.

Who protects the country from the military, the wireless companies, and the war contractors like Elon Musk? Who’s protecting the Earth?

For more information:
Physicians for Safe Technology — Environmental and Wildlife Effects https://mdsafetech.org/environmental-and-wildlife-effects/
Environmental Health Trust
https://ehtrust.org/environmental-effects-of-wireless-radiation-and-electromagetic-fields/
https://ehtrust.org/science/bees-butterflies-wildlife-research-electromagnetic-fields-environment/
Statement by Wildlife Biologist Alfonso Balmori, BSc on the FDA Review of Cell Phone Radiation and Cancer 
https://ehtrust.org/26684-2/
Dr. Albert M. Manville, Comments to the FCC, June 3, 2020
fcc.gov/ecfs/filing/1060315601199
A Briefing Memorandum: What We Know, Can Infer, and Don’t Yet Know about Impacts from Thermal and Non-thermal Non-ionizing Radiation to Birds and Other Wildlife by Albert M. Manville, II, Ph.D
https://ehtrust.org/memorandum-bird-wildlife-impacts-non-ionizing-radiation-albert-m-manville-ph-d-former-u-s-fish-wildlife-service-senior-biologist/
Dept. of Interior letter on FirstNet to Dept. of Commerce, February 7, 2014 ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/us_doi_comments.pdf
Birds, Bees, and Mankind: Destroying Nature by Electrosmog
https://kompetenzinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ki_beesbirdsandmankind_screen.pdf
UNESCO Report on Disappearance of Species from Mt. Nardia Park World Heritage Area 2000-2015 with Increased Expansion of Telecommunications Antenna. 
https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/Mt-Nardi-Wildlife-Report-to-UNESCO-FINAL.pdf
Letter to the National Park Service from the Environmental Health Trust, April 10, 2019
https://ehtrust.org/grand-tetons-largest-cell-tower-expansion-in-national-park-history-letter-on-environmental-impact/
International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology, July 22, 2019
https://www.saferemr.com/2019/07/international-scientist-appeal-on.html


Wilson’s Warbler. Photo: Karine Aigner
Audubon 
https://www.audubon.org/news/study-starvation-and-freak-snow-storm-caused-southwests-mass-bird-die

https://smartmeterharm.org/2022/01/19/hundreds-of-thousands-if-not-millions-of-birds-died-during-2020-u-s-air-force-5g-exercise-new-mexico/

Rocket Launch Site Coming Soon To A Pristine Coast Near You?

From Went2theBridge

Link to video: The Hidden Problems of Rocket Launch Sites 

Rocket launch sites popping up all over

By Lisa Savage

When you hear the phrase “public-private partnerships” what do you think of  – maybe corporate branding on public university research centers, or billionaires raking in taxpayer-funded subsidies? Both of these associations would be true of an increasingly evident manifestation of such partnerships: the construction of multiple rocket launch sites around the planet. 

Promoters don’t like to call these rocket launch sites. They prefer the public relations value of calling the sites “spaceports” which sounds much more appealing and, not by coincidence, much less military.

In capitalist countries, new launch site construction is always sold as a good way to create jobs. Because sites are necessarily distant from population centers, they’re proposed in communities where jobs for wages are typically scarce. People in places that have already built launch sites, however, found the promised jobs never materialized. A crew of specialists arrive to handle the occasional launch while the only permanent jobs are a few for security guards and custodians.

Space Alert! has previously reported on sites in Indonesia, Guyana, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It should be noted that it is common for nations to use launch sites located in other nations, so enticements like a decade of free internet service are used to persuade economically depressed countries to host a site. What follows is an overview of what we know about proposed launch sites and local resistance to their toxic fallout.

SaxaVord in Unst, Shetland has seen some evidence of a planned launch site including reports of an environmental impact statement that is unavailable online. Shetlanders have shown themselves to be vigorous advocates for environmental conservation in the past, and it’s likely many would oppose a rocket launch site in the island northernmost in Scotland.

Last winter, the Welsh Government released a National Space Strategy for Wales citing job creation in high-skilled technology professions and monetary rewards for locales identified as Cardiff, Newport, Port Talbot, Broughton, Llanbedr (Gwynedd), Aberporth, and Radnorshire. The profiteers included numerous companies specializing in missile technology and military training: Raytheon, Qinetiq, Quioptiq, and Airbus Defence and Space.


Less than half of the 20 “spaceports” listed by the United States Federal Aviation Administration have seen rocket launches so far. These are scattered around the nation including sites in Florida, Texas, Kodiak (Alaska), and New Mexico but there are many more locations proposed. 

–Michigan is one of many states where groups are working to develop rocket launch sites. In August of 2021, the state hosted a North American Space Summit to bring together rocket profiteers and investors. Investors at the summit were told that building commercial rocket launch sites could be a “space gold rush” with the chance of creating next-gen Silicon Valley tech profits. But no such sites in the U.S. have been profitable yet. Pentagon watchers theorize that the reason the U.S. military is using grants to encourage the construction of many sites right now is to gain an advantage in bargaining down the price of launching from them.

Still, many Michigan residents are opposing a plan to put a rocket launch site at the edge of Lake Superior. And voters in the state of Georgia recently rejected a plan for Camden County to purchase land to launch commercial rockets. Opponents who forced the referendum expressed concerns about environmental harms and safety risks.

Where I live in the U.S. we recently organized to oppose the creation of a public-private partnership called the Maine Space Corporation. A bill was rushed through a public hearing without notice and passed by the lower house of the Maine legislature without a roll call vote. Why the urgency? To create a public structure that allowed private corporations and public universities to apply for grants from the federal government in order to develop sites. One of the aerospace companies involved already had extensive contracts with the U.S. military. Another claims to be operating in a purely educational realm with close ties to the state’s university system. Any profits derived from using future launch sites will, of course, be privately held. So far no launch site has been constructed, and commercial fishermen successfully imposed a moratorium in a proposed location at the municipal level. Needless to say, we will monitor future developments closely and spread the word via our website NoToxicRockets4ME.org.

The lands of indigenous people continue to be invaded and colonized by for-profit and/or military launch sites over community objections. In Texas, the Comecrudo Tribe has filed suit citing the American Indian Religious Freedom Act on the grounds that it is violated by the closure of public beaches during SpaceX rocket testing. Comecrudo ceremonies on sacred days must be conducted at the beach. Joined by environmental groups, their suit says such closures also violate the Texas Constitution and names the county and the Texas General Land Office as being in violation.

Kati Rocket Lab in New Zealand was sold to indigenous people whose land it is on as a purely civilian facility and launch site. Lockheed Martin Corporation now runs Rocket Lab and the peace community in NZ is protesting this betrayal as military technology is now hoisted from the launch site.

As launch sites proliferate, so do launches. The rapid growth of new satellites which join older objects already in orbit plus a lot of non-functioning junk has implications for climate, the ozone layer, wildlife exposure to disruptive sound pollution, and toxic fallout here on Earth. 

Read my blog: “Went2theBridge

Twitter: @naturalguard

Take the Natural Guard pledge

https://went2thebridge.org/2022/07/03/rocket-launch-site-coming-soon-to-a-pristine-coast-near-you/

The Hidden Problems of Rocket Launch Sites (VIDEO)

From Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space
June 19, 2022

New Global Network video looking at the many impacts from the explosion of rocket launch facilities worldwide

Our latest video explores the various dangers that come from the growing numbers of rocket launch sites around the world.Tens of thousands of launches are having major impacts on Earth’s environment and a peaceful world. 

  • The making of rocket fuels creates major amounts of carbon dioxide releases 
  • Rocket launch exhaust contaminates air and water killing fish, birds and other wildlife
  • Rocket fuel storage is leaking into local water supplies. A key ingredient called perchlorate severely impacts the thryroid and especially children. Perchlorate is found in milk, lettuce and now contaminates the Colorado River.
  • Every rocket launch helps to punch a larger hole in the Earth’s ozone layer
  • When rocket parts fall back to Earth, burning up on re-entry, they drop a toxic stew of burned electronics parts into the air and water
  • Launch corporations promise lots of jobs, no environmental harm, and no military uses in order to worm their way into communities around the world
  • This video shows the examples of three communities impacted by rocket launch facilities – Boca Chia, Texas; Kodiak Island, Alaska and Rocket Lab in New Zealand
  • Most launch facilities, sold to the public as civilian, turn out to be a Trojan Horse as the military soon takes over and Pentagon, DARPA and CIA space missions are launched

https://space4peace.org/

American Bird Conservancy: Comment to FAA on SpaceX (and aerospace) harm to birds and wildlife

The aerospace industry’s damage to the environment and harm to birds, other wildlife, and humans is deplorable. A full-scale, indepth analysis of all aerospace programs and plans is long overdue and urgently needed.

Despite the area’s ecological importance, SpaceX has conducted and expanded operations with little oversight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and without a comprehensive study of impacts on wildlife and the environment.

From the American Bird Conservancy
February 2022

Aerospace company SpaceX is putting birds and other wildlife at risk in the coastal region of Boca Chica, Texas.

The SpaceX facility in Boca Chica is surrounded by federal and state public lands used by hundreds of thousands of individual birds of many different species throughout the year – from the federally Threatened Piping Plover and Red Knot to the Endangered Northern Aplomado Falcon. These lands also support several species of sea turtle and mammals listed under the Endangered Species Act.

Despite the area’s ecological importance, SpaceX has conducted and expanded operations with little oversight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and without a comprehensive study of impacts on wildlife and the environment.

Help protect birds in Boca Chica: Please demand a full-scale, in-depth analysis of SpaceX’s environmental impacts.

Update:

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has pushed back the final review of SpaceX’s Starship rocket project in Boca Chica, Texas, due to a deluge of comments from bird conservation activists. 

The FAA is going through more than 19,000 responses as it develops the final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Starship project. The document’s new release date is March 28th.

Join thousands of ABC activists who have already spoken up to keep birds and other wildlife in Boca Chica safe from the negative impacts of SpaceX’s operations. Sign our new petition urging the FAA and SpaceX to conduct a full-scale, in-depth analysis of SpaceX’s environmental impacts.

Ongoing construction, fires, and rocket debris have impacted important bird and wildlife habitats, harming vulnerable bird species, including the federally Threatened Red Knot and Piping Plover.

How serious is the threat to birds?  According to an analysis by Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program in Corpus Christi, the Piping Plover population in the Boca Chica region has decreased by 54 percent over the past 3 years since SpaceX started testing and launching rockets.

Despite the dangers to birds, the FAA has provided minimal oversight of SpaceX even as it expands operations.

Tell the FAA to step up and require a comprehensive study of how the company’s operations will impact birds, wildlife, and the environment.

Sincerely,

Michael J. Parr
President
American Bird Conservancy

https://act.abcbirds.org/a/take-action-petition-spacex

“Multiple tragedies of the commons” — satellite mega-constellations and the limits of Earth’s atmosphere

…there is little recognition that Earth’s orbit is a finite resource, the space and Earth environments are connected, and the actions of one actor can affect everyone. Until that changes, we risk multiple tragedies of the commons in space.

From Scientific Reports
Published 20 May 2021

Boley, A.C., Byers, M. Satellite mega-constellations create risks in Low Earth Orbit, the atmosphere and on EarthSci Rep 11, 10642 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89909-7

Excerpts:

The rapid development of mega-constellations risks multiple tragedies of the commons, including tragedies to ground-based astronomy, Earth orbit, and Earth’s upper atmosphere. Moreover, the connections between the Earth and space environments are inadequately taken into account by the adoption of a consumer electronic model applied to space assets. For example, we point out that satellite re-entries from the Starlink mega-constellation alone could deposit more aluminum into Earth’s upper atmosphere than what is done through meteoroids; they could thus become the dominant source of high-altitude alumina. Using simple models, we also show that untracked debris will lead to potentially dangerous on-orbit collisions on a regular basis due to the large number of satellites within mega-constellation orbital shells. The total cross-section of satellites in these constellations also greatly increases the risk of impacts due to meteoroids. De facto orbit occupation by single actors, inadequate regulatory frameworks, and the possibility of free-riding exacerbate these risks. International cooperation is urgently needed, along with a regulatory system that takes into account the effects of tens of thousands of satellites.

…Regardless of the law-making forum, mega-constellations require a shift in perspectives and policies: from looking at single satellites, to evaluating systems of thousands of satellites, and doing so within an understanding of the limitations of Earth’s environment, including its orbits.

Thousands of satellites and 1500 rocket bodies provide considerable mass in LEO, which can break into debris upon collisions, explosions, or degradation in the harsh space environment. Fragmentations increase the cross-section of orbiting material, and with it, the collision probability per time. Eventually, collisions could dominate on-orbit evolution, a situation called the Kessler Syndrome3. There are already over 12,000 trackable debris pieces in LEO, with these being typically 10 cm in diameter or larger. Including sizes down to 1 cm, there are about a million inferred debris pieces, all of which threaten satellites, spacecraft and astronauts due to their orbits crisscrossing at high relative speeds. Simulations of the long-term evolution of debris suggest that LEO is already in the protracted initial stages of the Kessler Syndrome, but that this could be managed through active debris removal4. The addition of satellite mega-constellations and the general proliferation of low-cost satellites in LEO stresses the environment further5,6,7,8.

…The first Starlink satellites contained some components that survive re-entry, with the highest human casualty risk for a single satellite calculated to be 1:17,40022, below NASA’s recommended 1:10,000 threshold. However, the initial approval process did not account for the cumulative casualty risk, and if all the then-planned 12,000 satellites had contained the same components, a continuous 5-year replacement cycle would have seen a 45% probability of one or more casualties per cycle. When the subsequent FCC petition process identified the problem, SpaceX reportedly replaced some materials with a view to having all of the satellite components now demise in the atmosphere23. Other companies, based in other countries, might not follow this best practice or be required to do so.

The demise of satellite components during re-entry introduces a different problem, since none of that material actually disappears. Starlink satellites have a dry mass of about 260 kg; 12,000 satellites will total 3100 tonnes. A 5-year cycle would see on average almost 2 tonnes re-entering Earth’s atmosphere daily. While small compared to the 54 daily tonnes of meteoroid mass24, the satellites are mostly aluminum; most meteoroids, in contrast, contain less than 1% Al by mass25. Thus, depending on the atmospheric residence time of material from re-entered satellites, each mega-constellation will produce fine particulates that could greatly exceed natural forms of high-altitude atmospheric aluminum deposition, particularly if the full numbers of envisaged satellites are launched. Anthropogenic deposition of aluminum in the atmosphere has long been proposed in the context of geoengineering as a way to alter Earth’s albedo26. These proposals have been scientifically controversial and controlled experiments encountered substantial opposition27. Mega-constellations will begin this process as an uncontrolled experiment28.

Rocket launches themselves affect the atmosphere. While cumulative CO2 emissions are small compared to other sources, CO2 is not the relevant metric. Black carbon produced by kerosene-fueled rockets such as SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and alumina particles produced by solid-fueled rockets lead to instantaneous radiative forcing. Modelling of the cumulative effect of emissions from 1000 annual launches of hydrocarbon-fuelled rockets found that, after one decade, the black carbon would result in radiative forcing comparable to that resulting from sub-sonic aviation29. Although 1000 launches annually is 10 times the current rate, the construction and renewal of multiple mega-constellations will require dramatic increases in launches. Current launches likely cause non-negligible radiative forcing already30.

Rockets fueled with liquid hydrogen do not produce black carbon but require larger tanks and therefore larger rockets, with solid-fueled boosters often being used to increase payload capacity. SpaceX’s new Starship, which the company plans to use to launch 400 Starlink satellites at a time, will be fueled by methane, the combustion of which produces soot that may, like black carbon, contribute to radiative forcing. All liquid fuels will affect mesospheric cloud formation31, with potential climate consequences. Rockets even threaten the ozone layer by depositing radicals directly into the stratosphere29, with solid-fueled rockets causing the most damage because of the hydrogen chloride and alumina they contain29.

…there is little recognition that Earth’s orbit is a finite resource, the space and Earth environments are connected, and the actions of one actor can affect everyone. Until that changes, we risk multiple tragedies of the commons in space.

PDF
nature.com/articles/s41598-021-89909-7.pdf

Boley, A.C., Byers, M. Satellite mega-constellations create risks in Low Earth Orbit, the atmosphere and on Earth. Sci Rep 11, 10642 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89909-7

Aluminum oxide impacts: “All the satellites could crack open the ozone layer”

From Popular Mechanics
June 17, 2021
By Caroline Delbert

Excerpt:
“We have 54 tonnes (60 tons) of meteoroid material coming in every day,” lead study author Aaron Boley told Space.com. “With the first generation of Starlink, we can expect about 2 tonnes (2.2 tons) of dead satellites reentering Earth’s atmosphere daily. But meteoroids are mostly rock, which is made of oxygen, magnesium and silicon. These satellites are mostly aluminum, which the meteoroids contain only in a very small amount, about 1 [percent].”

Aluminum is key to everything at stake here. First, it burns into reflective aluminum oxide, or alumina, which could turn into an unwitting geoengineering experiment that could alter Earth’s climate. And second, aluminum oxide could damage and even rip a new hole in the ozone layer. Let’s look at each threat separately and try to figure it out.

…What, then, of the ozone layer? Once again, aluminum oxide comes to the forefront. As aluminum burns, it can chemically react with ozone in the air to form aluminum oxide, thereby depleting the naturally protective supply of ozone in the atmosphere. The atmosphere can absorb a small amount of these chemicals without ill effect, but with tens of thousands of satellites in play, the quantities will naturally go up.

That’s in addition to the ozone damage done by each rocket launch to put satellites into LEO. “Rockets threaten the ozone layer by depositing radicals directly into the stratosphere, with solid-fueled rockets causing the most damage because of the hydrogen chloride and alumina they contain,” the researchers write.

While satellites typically dissolve above the stratosphere where most ozone is contained, the particulate can drift down into the stratosphere in order to react there with ozone, scientist Gerhard Drolshagen, an expert on meteoroid material, told Space.com. Aluminum oxide will sink to that level and subsequently cause losses.

For complete article:
https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/satellites/a36651845/satellite-pollution-starlink-ozone/

Study referred to is–

nature.com/articles/s41598-021-89909-7
Boley, A.C., Byers, M. Satellite mega-constellations create risks in Low Earth Orbit, the atmosphere and on Earth. Sci Rep 11, 10642 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89909-7

Rockets destroy ozone and cause climate change – aerospace programs’ deadly impacts to the Earth

Antarctic ozone map for 01 February 2022
Palette relating map colors to ozone values
From NASA Ozone Watch
February 1, 2022

By Nina Beety
January 24, 2022

Since its beginnings, the space industry has used PR, Hollywood, and a parade of stars to carve itself into the public psyche, including targeting children. Aerospace costs have been largely ignored or hidden, but these costs are serious and accelerating.

The ozone layer in the sky continues to deteriorate despite international action such as the ban on CFCs. The Antarctic ozone hole is becoming permanent year-round, and the soothing green and blue on NASA’s maps actually signifies low ozone levels.1 The aerospace industry is a major factor in this problem. Dallas etal. (2020): [O]zone depletion is one of the largest environmental concerns surrounding rocket launches from Earth.”2 Why?

1 – Rockets’ radical emissions cause immediate, almost total ozone destruction for hundreds of square miles and which lasts days.3

2 – Rockets’ exhaust and pollutants introduced into the stratosphere persist there and react with and destroy ozone over the long term.4

3 – The sun creates the ozone layer by changing oxygen into ozone in the stratosphere. But rockets put pollutants such as exhaust, water vapor, black carbon, and fuel components such as alumina into the stratosphere, blocking the sun’s rays. This reduces the sun’s creation of ozone, reducing ozone layer repair and replenishment. The long-lived rocket byproducts persist in the stratosphere for 3-5 years,5 and accumulate with every rocket launch, decreasing ozone regeneration with each launch.6

4 – The shockwave of de-orbitting debris, satellites, and rockets creates nitric oxide which destroys ozone.7

There is no environmental oversight. Researchers including Martin Ross, Darin Toohey, and James Vedda have repeatedly warned the industry,8 but the industry and governments are escalating space funding and programs instead.

Prior to 2021, 2000 satellites were in orbit around the Earth. Then in 2021, 2800 satellites were launched — more than doubling the total in just one year.9 However, the FCC has approved 17,270 low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. 65,912 more LEO applications are pending. Governments and private companies plan an additional 30,947+. Rwanda has applied to the ITU for a staggering 327,320 satellites (Firstenberg, 2022). These numbers don’t include systems fewer than five satellites, geostationary, or medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, or rockets into space.

These programs will acceleratingly destroy the ozone layer which is essential to protect the Earth and life.10 NASA discovered in 2007 that UV-C and UV-B were already reaching the Earth and failed to act.11 UV radiation is having lethal effects on species now.

LEO satellites are very short-lived, lasting 5-7 years; the U.S. military plans 3-year duration satellites. These LEOs need frequent replacement via rocket launch.

Aleksandr Dunayev of the Russian Space Agency said in 1991: “About 300 launches of the [space] shuttle each year would be a catastrophe, and the ozone layer would be completely destroyed.”12

Science author Arthur Firstenberg says: “In 2021, there were 146 orbital rocket launches to put 1,800 satellites into space. At that rate, to maintain and continually replace 100,000 low-earth-orbit satellites, which have a lifespan of five years, would require more than 1,600 rocket launches per year, or more than four every day, forever into the future.”13 That’s over five times the amount to totally destroy the ozone layer.

The long-lived rocket pollution in the stratosphere also traps Earth’s natural and human-made heat under a rapidly thickening blanket, preventing the heat from venting into space. This will increasingly raise Earth’s temperature.14 This is a different issue than carbon or methane. However, the increased heat will release methane stored in permafrost and formerly ice-covered regions, and this methane will poison Earth.

These satellite systems are largely intended for 4G/5G global Wi-Fi, military warfighting, and the Internet of Things. They exponentially increase RF-EMF radiation levels in the atmosphere and on Earth. This radiation damages health and causes environmental damage. It damages neurology, DNA, cell membranes, the brain, cognition, learning, memory, immunity, reproduction and fertility, blood, and mitochondria, dysregulates hormones, the blood-brain barrier, and sleep cycles, and causes cancer, stroke, heart attacks, and oxidative stress.15

It disrupts wildlife’s ability to navigate and orient by Earth’s natural EMF fields. Bees, insects, and birds are particularly vulnerable.16 The U.S. Department of Interior warned in 2014 about the devastating impacts to birds from this radiation.17 In 2020, a 5G military/SpaceX “live fire” drill killed up to millions of birds in the Southwest.18 Western governments and the FCC ignore the substantial research showing devastating impacts.

What a disaster.

Another problem: dead spacecraft and debris are rapidly accumulating in the sky, creating collision hazards for other rockets, satellites, and the space stations.19 Every collision creates more debris, leading to more collisions. Unstoppable chain-reaction collisions – Kessler Syndrome — are inevitable. It is increasingly difficult to navigate through these debris fields.

High rates of satellite failure leave dead, unmaneuverable satellites in orbit. The new large constellations will dramatically worsen this problem.20

All of this debris, computers, electronic and chemical waste, radioactive elements, weapons, dead satellites, rocket parts, and dust come down. Aerospace officials and agencies, including the FCC,21 talk nonsense about “disposal” via “safe” de-orbitting and vaporization, as if the waste simply disappears.

The reality is that de-orbitting and vaporization create new problems — exploding burning debris, aerosolizing toxins, metals, paints, fuels, and other chemicals. They fall into the lower atmosphere to pollute the soil, ocean, waters, and air we breathe. “Vaporized” means it explodes into tiny particles and dust.

With these large constellations of short lifespan, increasing failures, and launch rocket debris, a barrage of debris and fall-out and increasing atmospheric dust are just beginning.

All of this debris burns at very hot temperatures as it re-enters the atmosphere, with big and little chunks landing everywhere.22 Exponential increases in fall-out increases the risk for fires, injuries, deaths, and property damage. A large chunk of space debris fell into a Michigan family’s yard and just missed hitting anyone.23 Hot debris fell in Chile last year causing fires.24 A Russian satellite that was supposed to stay in orbit for ten thousand years fell out of orbit this month and possibly landed in the Pacific Ocean.25

In 2020, the FCC proposed an “acceptable” casualty rate of 1 in 10,000 from falling satellites and rockets.26 The FCC also discussed liability and indemnity. However, any liability depends on debris being attributable to a company or government. Otherwise, injured parties would likely have limited or no recourse.

Direct land, air, and ocean pollution from dumping, rocket liftoffs, launch pad runoff and accidents, is another terrible problem.27

No one is discussing this.

The US also wants to put nuclear power into space 28 — reactors in the sky — and awarded a major contract to a team that includes GE, the company which engineered the flawed Fukushima reactors.29 Rockets can explode at launch, malfunction after launch, or fail to reach orbit. This last happened with SNAP 9-A in 1964. As a result, 2.1 pounds of plutonium-238 “vaporized in the atmosphere and spread worldwide… Dr. John Goffman …concluded that the dispersed deadly plutonium-238 was a leading cause of the increase in cancers around the world today.”30 There have been other space nuclear accidents. Officials don’t seem to care.

The militarization of the atmosphere, space, and the moon risk World War III — another problem. 5G in space will control weapons systems on Earth and in the ocean, 31 including military sonar already responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of dolphins, whales, and other marine animals.32 Elon Musk/SpaceX in partnership with the US government has endangered Chinese astronauts by getting too close to their space station.33 Musk is the same man who advocates nuking Mars and saying the U.S. can coup whatever country it wants for rare earth minerals such as lithium.34 The military and its contractors are not guided by responsible, calm leaders. The worst is already happening.

Add to that accelerating plans to exploit, extract, militarize, and privatize the sovereign moon which stabilizes Earth’s rotation and climates, creates the tides, and is essential to all life, as I detailed in my previous article.35 Who’s protecting the moon and the Earth?

Military conquest, profiteering through extraction, mining, tourism, and exploitation are the main goals driving the expenditure of public monies and private investment, not pretty space pictures or neutral, scientific “exploration”. The plutonium ecocide of Saturn by the space industry via the Cassini probe should have been a wakeup call to pull the plug on NASA and the aerospace industry before more planets are destroyed including the Earth.

Subsidizing this industry has caused a brain drain into its high-paying jobs, neglecting and hampering work on Earth’s urgent problems. And the aerospace industry has siphoned off billions in public funds that could fund solutions, while causing expensive environmental problems to be dealt with “later”. The $10 billion dollar Webb telescope is one recent example. Decisionmakers are dashing headlong toward the mirage of a new Gold Rush.

It’s time to strip back the curtain and reveal the protected astronauts, aerospace moguls, and rocket scientists. They are not heroes. They are destroying the Earth. The joy rides of William Shatner and Jeff Bezos were sickening.

Those who want to stop climate change and protect the ozone layer must halt the space programs including space tourism and military programs.

Those who would protect the environment must stop these programs and do it now.

This is common sense. This is about Earth protection. This is about growing up.

Stop the rockets. Defund the space programs. Protect the Earth now.

https://www.globalresearch.ca/rockets-destroy-ozone-and-cause-climate-change-aerospace-programs-deadly-impacts-to-the-earth/5767944

Notes:

1 https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/

https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/monthly/monthly_2022-01_SH.html

https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/monthly/monthly_2022-01_NH.html

NASA ozone watch

2 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652620302560 (abstract)

The environmental impact of emissions from space launches: A comprehensive review, J.A. Dallas, S. Raval, J.P. Alvarez, Gaitan, S. Saydam, A.G. Dempster, Journal of Cleaner Production, May 10, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120209

3 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14777620902768867#abstract).

Martin Ross , Darin Toohey , Manfred Peinemann & Patrick Ross (2009) Limits on the Space Launch Market Related to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Astropolitics, 7:1, 50-82, DOI: 10.1080/14777620902768867

The emissions[Four Main Propellant Types] presented in Table 1 cause prompt and deep ozone loss (approaching 100%) in the immediate plume wake, caused by the radical emissions, over areas of hundreds of square miles lasting several days after launch. These stratospheric ‘‘ozone mini-holes’’ have been well observed in situ by high altitude aircraft plume sampling campaigns.

4 ibid.

Beyond the prompt plume wake ozone destruction, second order processing of rocket combustion products occurs during the weeks and months after launch. The plumes are transported and mixed into the global stratosphere and lose their identity as distinct air masses. This intermediate mesoscale phase would be characterized by complex plume-atmosphere interactions among radicals, reservoirs, and sinks. Significant influences from alumina or soot particles are expected, possibly involving the creation of new H2O related particles. The details of this processing will be highly variable according to altitude and even time of day of launch and certainly has a large influence on the steady-state global ozone loss. A few chance observations of aged plumes confirm the importance of the mesoscale processing. No studies have been done on this aspect of rocket emissions. [emphasis added]

https://www.space.com/38884-rocket-exhaust-space-junk-pollution.html

Leonard David (2017) Spaceflight Pollution: How Do Rocket Launches and Space Junk Affect Earth’s Atmosphere?

https://www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/NASA-commercial-companies-planning-more-rocket-14499074.php

As NASA and others launch more rockets, effects on Earth remain a mystery, Oct. 8, 2019

5 https://spacenews.com/op-ed-time-to-clear-the-air-about-launch-pollution/

Martin Ross and James Vedda, Time to clear the air about launch pollution, July 3, 2018

https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/31/17287062/rocket-emissions-black-carbon-alumina-particles-ozone-layer-stratosphere

Loren Grush, Why it’s time to study how rocket emissions change the atmosphere, May 31, 2018

6 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013EF000160/abstract

Martin Ross and Patti Sheaffer (2014) Radiative forcing caused by rocket engine emissions, Earth’s Future. January 23, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013EF000160

7 https://www.space.com/6720-space-littering-impact-earths-atmosphere.html

Leonard David (2009) Space Littering Can Impact Earth’s Atmosphere

8 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14777620902768867#abstract).

Martin Ross , Darin Toohey , Manfred Peinemann & Patrick Ross (2009) Limits

on the Space Launch Market Related to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Astropolitics, 7:1, 50-82,DOI:10.1080/14777620902768867

Martin Ross and James A. Vedda, The Policy and Science of Rocket Emissions, April 2018

9 https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/441449-Low-Earth-Orbit-Satellites.pdf

441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, Arthur Firstenberg. January 2022

10 https://file.scirp.org/pdf/ACS_2016012714284145.pdf

Anwar, F., Chaudhry, F.N., Nazeer, S., Zaman, N. and Azam, S. (2016) Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion and Its Effects on Human: Review. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 6, 129-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/acs.2016.61011

11 www.globalresearch.ca/the-moment-of-truth-has-come-what-now-threat-to-life-on-planet-earth-ozone-dying-and-the-deadly-ultraviolet-cosmic-radiation/5637864

Claudia von Werlhof, The Moment of Truth Has Come! What Now? Threat to Life on Planet Earth; Ozone Dying and the Deadly Ultraviolet Cosmic Radiation, April 25, 2018

12 New York Times, May 14, 1991, cited in http://stopglobalwifi.org/OpenLettertoMedicalOrganizations.html

Global Union Against Radiation Deployment from Space (GUARDS) letter to World Medical Association, February 16, 2016

13 https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/441449-Low-Earth-Orbit-Satellites.pdf

Arthur Firstenberg, 441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, January 2022

14 https://www.space.com/38884-rocket-exhaust-space-junk-pollution.html

Leonard David (2017) Spaceflight Pollution: How Do Rocket Launches and Space Junk Affect Earth’s Atmosphere?

15 ibid.

www.mdsafetech.org Physicians for Safe Technology

www.bioinitiative.org Bioinitiative Report

www.emfscientist.org EMF Scientist

www.saferemr.com Electromagnetic Health

www.magdahavas.com Dr. Magda Havas, includes archives of Dr. Zorach Glaser

http://stopglobalwifi.org/OpenLettertoMedicalOrganizations.html

Global Union Against Radiation Deployment from Space (GUARDS) letter to World Medical Association, February 16, 2016

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8425056

James C. Lin, Clear Evidence of Cell-Phone RF Radiation Cancer Risk. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2018.2844058

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8866792?fbclid=IwAR3MWQz4T-jY38uLDEmwRotW2LAOr6PVlvo5YgG_aVvuSg2fIr2r5MFARF4

Lin JC. The Significance of Primary Tumors in the NTP Study of Chronic Rat Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 20(11):18-21. Nov 2019. DOI:10.1109/MMM.2019.2935361.

https://www.saferemr.com/2018/11/NTP-final-reports31.html

Joel Moskowitz, National Toxicology Program analysis

Robert C. Kane, Cellular Telephone Russian Roulette: A Historical and Scientific Perspective, 2001

16 https://kompetenzinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ki_beesbirdsandmankind_screen.pdf

Birds, Bees and Mankind: Destroying Nature by Electrosmog, Ulrich Warnke

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56948-0.pdf

Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure of Western Honey Bees

17 http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/us_doi_comments.pdf

Department of Interior, Comments on FirstNet to Department of Commerce, Feb. 7, 2014

18 https://www.investors.com/news/spacex-starlink-impressed-air-force-in-big-live-fire-exercise/

SpaceX Starlink Impresses Air Force Weapons Buyer In Big Live-Fire Exercise

https://www.tesmanian.com/blogs/tesmanian-blog/starlink-airforce

U.S. Air Force Acquisition Chief is impressed by SpaceX Starlink’s performance during Live-Fire exercise

https://emrabc.ca/?p=18023

https://smartmeterharm.org/2022/01/19/hundreds-of-thousands-if-not-millions-of-birds-died-during-2020-u-s-air-force-5g-exercise-new-mexico/

‘Unprecedented’: Birds mysteriously dropping dead across southwestern U.S.

“It’s just terrible,” NMSU biologist Martha Desmond told CNN. “The number is in the six figures. Just by looking at the scope of what we’re seeing, we know this is a very large event, hundreds of thousands and maybe even millions of dead birds, and we’re looking at the higher end of that.”

19 https://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/gjicl/vol40/iss2/8/

Meghan R. Plantz, Orbital Debris: Out of Space, 40 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 585 (2012).

https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/441449-Low-Earth-Orbit-Satellites.pdf

441,449 Low Earth Orbit Satellites Operating, Approved and Proposed, Arthur Firstenberg. January 2022

https://www.space.com/6720-space-littering-impact-earths-atmosphere.html

Leonard David (2009) Space Littering Can Impact Earth’s Atmosphere

www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-risky-rush-for-mega-constellations/

Jonathan O’Callaghan, The risky rush for mega constellations, October 31, 2019

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/JD094iD01p01047

Zolensky, M.E., D.S. McKay and L.A. Kaczor (1989) A ten-fold increase in the abundance of large solid particles in the stratosphere, as measured over the period 1976-1984. The Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, D1, 1047-1056.

Representative chemical, structural, and morphological analyses of the large (>1 μm diameter) solid particles from three impaction collection surfaces have been performed. These collections sampled the stratosphere at approximately 17–19 km in altitude during 1976, 1981, and 1984…This rise in solid particle number density for the stratosphere over the collection period is likely due to the influx of solid rocket exhaust and rocket and satellite debris into the atmosphere in increasingly larger amounts with time. Some of this material is shed from spacecraft during ascent through the atmosphere, but the majority is probably provided during the descent of material from Earth’s growing belt of debris in low Earth orbit.

https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/17/space-junk-raise-concerns-as-more-and-more-satellites-are-launched.html

Arjun Kharpal, Space companies are racing to beam web access to the entire planet. But ‘space junk’ is a big worry, February 16, 2020

www.scientificamerican.com/article/relentless-rise-of-space-junk-threatens-satellites-and-earth/

Jonathan O’Callaghan, SpaceX’s Starlink could cause cascades of space junk, May 13, 2019

www.law360.com/technology/articles/1314044/satellite-cos-want-fcc-to-reconsider-space-junk-rules

Nadia Dreid, Satellite Cos. Want FCC to Reconsider Space Junk Rules, September 28, 2020

“Once in orbit, the debris can move seven times faster than a bullet, according to NASA.”

20 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/relentless-rise-of-space-junk-threatens-satellites-and-earth/

Jonathan O’Callaghan, The Risky Rush for Mega-Constellations, 2019

“My concern with these big constellations is the [overall] failure rates,” says Glenn Peterson, a senior engineering specialist at the Aerospace Corporation near Los Angeles. “If a satellite fails, they can’t bring it down any more.” In its own filing with the FCC, Amazon was asked to project the potential collision risk of its Project Kuiper constellation if up to 15 percent of its satellites failed, a high but not unfathomable number. U.S.-company Iridium Communications, which launched a constellation of 95 satellites into orbit in the 1990s, found that 30 percent of those satellites failed. If 15 percent of Amazon’s satellites failed in orbit, the company has estimated a 17 percent chance that one of them would collide with a piece of space debris—potentially breaking apart to create more space debris and raise overall collision risks.

21 Mitigation of Orbital Debris in the New Space Age, Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 35 FCC Rcd 4156 (2020). 20-54

https://docs.fcc.gov/public/attachments/FCC-20-54A1.pdf

22 Meghan R. Plantz, Orbital Debris: Out of Space

Example: “…in 1997, parts of a U.S. launch vehicle, including a 450 pound stainless steel propellant tank, ruptured upon impact close to a farmer’s house in Georgetown, Texas. Other parts from the launch vehicle landed around Texas and Oklahoma, such as the titanium helium-pressurized sphere that

landed 100 miles away in Seguin, Texas.

23 https://web.archive.org/web/20201111231536/https://www.businessinsider.com/samsung-space-selfie-satellite-crash-lands-michigan-property-2019-10

Samsung’s ‘Space Selfie’ satellite made a crash landing on a Michigan couple’s property, 2019

24 https://www.space.com/fireballs-fall-on-chile.html

Falling Fireballs Crashed in Chile Last Week. They Weren’t Meteorites, Experts Say.

25 https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/a-failed-russian-rocket-stage-crashed-to-earth-in-an-uncontrolled-reentry-into-the-atmosphere-over-the-pacific/ar-AASuKeM?ocid=msedgntp

26 https://docs.fcc.gov/public/attachments/FCC-20-54A1.pdf

FCC Order and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 20-54, IV. Section E Casualty Risk Assessment, p. 81-82. including on cumulative risk for constellations of satellites:

“One approach could be a safe harbor similar to some of the concepts described above, wherein a system satisfying a 1 in 10,000, or other risk metric system-wide would satisfy the safe harbor threshold, such that no further analysis of risk would be required We seek comment on this safe harbor approach and a reasonable risk metric for a safe harbor.”

The following section on indemnification is very revealing about companies’ desire to avoid responsibility for damage.

27 https://www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/NASA-commercial-companies-planning-more-rocket-14499074.php

As NASA and others launch more rockets, effects on Earth remain a mystery, Oct. 8, 2019

28 http://space4peace.blogspot.com/2021/02/our-opposition-remains-dangers-of.html

Bruce Gagnon, Our opposition grows: Dangers of launching nukes into space, Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space. Feb. 15, 2021

29 https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/USNC_Tech_team_wins_contract_to_develop_nuclear_thermal_propulsion_system_for_NASA_999.html

USNC-Tech team wins contract to develop nuclear thermal propulsion system for NASA

30 http://space4peace.blogspot.com/2021/02/our-opposition-remains-dangers-of.html

31 See Global Network Against Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space www.space4peace.org

https://www.investors.com/news/spacex-starlink-impressed-air-force-in-big-live-fire-exercise/

32 https://stop5ginternational.org/smart-ocean-impacts-of-technology-on-marine-life/

https://www.naturalblaze.com/2021/12/rf-emf-5g-iout-internet-of-underwater-things-vs-whales-and-ocean-mammals-activist-artist-russell-wray.html

https://www.naturalblaze.com/2021/12/solstice-2021-a-whale-of-a-story-scientist-warns-of-5g-iout-damage-to-ocean-life.html

https://www.naturalblaze.com/2021/12/emf-rf-5g-internet-of-underwater-things-devastation-to-whales-is-warning-us.html

https://www.naturalblaze.com/2021/11/emf-rf-5g-thanksgiving-addressing-past-colonialization-our-militarized-present-and-the-future-underwater-internet-of-things-part-3-of-3.html

33 https://www.newser.com/story/314981/china-spacex-satellites-have-almost-collided-with-our-space-station.html

China Angry With Elon Musk Over Space Near-Misses

34 https://www.opednews.com/articles/We-will-coup-whoever-we-w-by-Rainer-Shea-CIA_Coup_Repression_Trump-200728-602.html

Rainer Shea, “We will coup whoever we want”: U.S. imperialism’s friendly mask slips off. Op-Ed News, July 27, 2020

35 https://www.globalresearch.ca/who-protecting-moon/5712564

Nina Beety, Who’s Protecting the Moon, Global Research. May 15, 2020

441,449 LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES — Operating, Approved, and Proposed

By Arthur Firstenberg
Cellphone Task Force
January 5, 2022

PDF

While the attention of a terrified world has been riveted on a virus, and while concern about radiation has been focused on 5G on the ground, the assault on the heavens has reached astronomical proportions. During the past two years, the number of satellites circling the earth has increased from 2,000 to 4,800, and a flood of new projects has brought the number of operating, approved, and proposed satellites to at least 441,449. And that number only includes low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites that will reside in the ionosphere.

The satellite projects include the ones listed below. The companies are based in the United States unless otherwise indicated.

17,270 satellites already approved by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission:

  • Amazon (Kuiper) – 3,236 satellites
  • Astro Digital – 30 satellites
  • Black Sky Global – 36 satellites
  • Boeing – 147 satellites
  • Capella Space Corp. – 7 satellites
  • Globalstar (operating since 2000) – 48 satellites
  • Hawkeye 360 – 80 satellites
  • ICEYE – 6 satellites (FINLAND)
  • Iridium (operating since 1998) – 66 satellites
  • Kepler Communications – 140 satellites (CANADA)
  • Loft Orbital – 11 satellites
  • OneWeb – 720 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Planet Labs (operating) – 200 satellites
  • R2 Space, LLC – 8 satellites
  • Spire Global – 175 satellites
  • SpaceX – 11,943 satellites
  • Swarm – 150 satellites
  • Telesat – 117 satellites (CANADA)
  • Theia Holdings – 120 satellites
  • Umbra Lab – 6 satellites
  • Viasat – 24 satellites

Applications for 65,912 satellites pending before the FCC:

  • Amazon (Kuiper) – 4,538 additional satellites
  • AST & Science – 243 satellites
  • Astra Space – 13,620 satellites
  • Boeing – 5,789 additional satellites
  • Black Sky Global – 14 additional satellites
  • Fleet Space Technologies – 40 satellites (AUSTRALIA)
  • Hughes Network Systems – 1,440 satellites
  • Inmarsat – 198 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Kepler Communications – two additional constellations of 360 satellites and 212 satellites (CANADA)
  • Lynk Global – 10 satellites (HONG KONG)
  • Maxar Technologies – 12 satellites
  • New Spectrum – 30 satellites (CANADA)
  • OneWeb – 6,368 additional satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Orbital Sidekick – 6 satellites
  • SN Space Systems – 1,190 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • SpaceX – 30,000 additional satellites
  • Telesat – 1,554 additional satellites (CANADA)
  • Terra Bella – 24 satellites (15 already operating)
  • Viasat – 264 additional satellites

Constellations totaling 14,872 satellites announced by governments:

  • Guowang – 12,992 satellites (CHINA)
  • Roscosmos – 264 satellites named Marathon (RUSSIA)
  • Roscosmos – 640 satellites named Sfera (RUSSIA)
  • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – 20 satellites (U.S. MILITARY)
  • Space Development Agency – 500 satellites (U.S. MILITARY)
  • UN:IO – 400 satellites (EUROPEAN COMMISSION)
  • Yaogan – 76 satellites (already operating) (CHINESE MILITARY)

Other LEO constellations planned by U.S. and foreign companies, totaling more than 16,055 satellites:

  • 4pi Lab – 16 satellites (CANADA)
  • ADA Space – 192 satellites (CHINA)
  • Aerospacelab – two constellations (unknown number of satellites) (BELGIUM)
  • Aistech – 20 satellites (SPAIN)
  • Albedo Space – 24 satellites
  • Alpha Insights – unknown number (CANADA)
  • Analytical Space – 36 satellites (under contract with U.S. SPACE FORCE)
  • Apogee Networks – 18 satellites (NEW ZEALAND)
  • Astrocast – 100 satellites (SWITZERLAND)
  • Astrome – 198 satellites (INDIA)
  • Aurora Insight – 12 satellites
  • Avant Space – 30 satellites (RUSSIA) equipped with lasers to serve as a billboard in space to display advertisements
  • Axelspace – 50 satellites (JAPAN)
  • BeetleSat – 80 satellites (ISRAEL)
  • Canon – 100 satellites (JAPAN)
  • Capella Space Corp. – 29 additional satellites
  • Carbon Mapper – 20 satellites
  • Care Weather – 50 satellites
  • Chang Guang – 138 satellites (CHINA)
  • China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation – 80 satellites (CHINA)
  • Climavision – 50 satellites
  • Commsat – 72 satellites (8 already operating) (CHINA)
  • ConstellR – 30 satellites (GERMANY)
  • Curvalux – 240 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Earth Observant – 30 satellites
  • EarthDaily Analytics – 6 satellites (CANADA)
  • Earth-i – 15 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • EchoStar – 30 satellites (CANADA)
  • Elecnor Deimos – unknown number (SPAIN)
  • EOSAgriSat – 12 satellites
  • Eutelsat – 25 satellites (FRANCE)
  • ExactEarth (operating) – 68 satellites (CANADA)
  • Fleet Space – 60 additional satellites (AUSTRALIA)
  • Future Navigation – 120 satellites (CHINA)
  • GalaxEye – 15 satellites (INDIA)
  • Galaxy Space – 1,000 satellites (CHINA)
  • Geely – unknown number (CHINA)
  • GeoOptics – 50 satellites
  • GHG Sat – 10 satellites (CANADA)
  • GP Advanced Projects – 9 satellites (ITALY)
  • Guodian Gauke – 38 satellites (CHINA)
  • Hanwha Systems – 2,000 satellites (SOUTH KOREA)
  • HEAD Aerospace – 48 satellites (CHINA)
  • Hera Systems – 50 satellites
  • Horizon Technologies – 13 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Hydrosat – 16 satellites
  • Hypersat – 6 satellites
  • ICEYE – has already launched 14 satellites and plans 18, for 12 more satellites than have been approved by the FCC (FINLAND)
  • Innova Space – 100 satellites (ARGENTINA)
  • iQPS – 36 satellites (JAPAN)
  • Kinéis – 25 satellites (FRANCE)
  • KLEO – 300 satellites – (GERMANY)
  • Kleos Space – 80 satellites (LUXEMBOURG)
  • Lacuna Space – 240 satellites (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Launchspace – 124 satellites
  • LunaSonde – unknown number (UNITED KINGDOM)
  • Lynk Global – 4,990 additional satellites (HONG KONG)
  • LyteLoop – 6 satellites
  • MDA – unknown number
  • Mission Space – unknown number (LATVIA)
  • Modularity Space – 150 satellites
  • Muon Space – unknown number
  • Myriota – 50 satellites (AUSTRALIA)
  • NanoAvionics – 72 satellites (LITHUANIA)
  • Ningxia – 10 satellites (CHINA)
  • NorthStar – 52 satellites (CANADA)
  • OHB Italia – 20 satellites (ITALY)
  • Omnispace – 200 satellites
  • OQ Technology – 60 satellites (LUXEMBOURG)
  • Orbital Micro Systems – 40 satellites
  • OroraTech – 100 satellites (GERMANY)
  • PION Labs – unknown number (BRAZIL)
  • PIXXEL – 36 satellites (INDIA)
  • PlanetIQ – 20 satellites
  • PredaSAR – 48 satellites
  • Prométhée – unknown number (FRANCE)
  • QEYNet – unknown number (CANADA)
  • QianSheng – 20 satellites (CHINA)
  • Reaktor Space Lab – 36 satellites (FINLAND)
  • Rocket Lab – “Mega-constellation” of unknown number (NEW ZEALAND)
  • Rogue Space Systems – 40 satellites 
  • Rovial – unknown number (FRANCE)
  • Saab – 100 satellites (SWEDEN)
  • SaraniaSat – unknown number
  • Sateliot – 100 satellites (SPAIN)
  • Satellogic – 90 satellites (ARGENTINA)
  • SatRevolution – 1500 satellites (POLAND)
  • Scanworld – 10 satellites (BELGIUM)
  • Scepter and ExxonMobil – 24 satellites
  • SCOUT – unknown number
  • Shanghai Lizheng – 90 satellites (CHINA)
  • Skykraft – 210 satellites (AUSTRALIA)
  • Space JLTZ – 200 satellites (MEXICO)
  • Space Union – 32 satellites (LITHUANIA)
  • SpaceBelt – 12 satellites
  • SpaceFab – unknown number
  • Spacety – 56 satellites (CHINA)
  • Stara Space – 120 satellites
  • Startical – 200 satellites (SPAIN)
  • Sternula – 50 satellites (DENMARK)
  • Synspective – 30 satellites (JAPAN)
  • Telnet – 30 satellites (TUNISIA)
  • Tomorrow.io – 36 satellites
  • Totum Labs – 24 satellites
  • Trion Space – 288 satellites (LIECHTENSTEIN)
  • Trustpoint – unknown number
  • Umbra Lab – 18 additional satellites
  • UnseenLabs – 50 satelites (FRANCE)
  • Vyoma Space – unknown number (GERMANY)
  • WiseSat Space – unknown number (SWITZERLAND)
  • Xona – 300 satellites
  • ZeroG Lab – 378 satellites (CHINA)
  • Zhuhai Orbita – 34 satellites (CHINA)

Rwanda, which wants to catapult Africa into world leadership in space, filed an application with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) on September 21, 2021 for 327,320 satellites. Its proposal includes 937 orbital planes, distributed in 27 orbital shells (layers of satellites at different altitudes), with 360 satellites in each plane.

Rwanda Space Agency – 327,320 satellites (RWANDA)

TOTAL: 441,449 SATELLITES OPERATING, APPROVED AND PROPOSED (+18 constellations whose numbers are not yet known) 

Most of the above list of satellites would orbit at altitudes between about 325 km (200 miles) and 1,100 km (680 miles), except that some of Rwanda’s proposed orbits go as low as 280 km (174 miles). The above list does not include applications for satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO), or for LEO constellations of fewer than 5 satellites, or constellations in medium earth orbit (MEO) such as: 

  • Intelsat (at 8600 km) – 216 satellites (LUXEMBOURG)
  • Mangata Networks (at 6,400 km and 12,000 km) – 791 satellites
  • O3b (at 8,062 km) – 112 satellites (LUXEMBOURG)

BRIGHTENING THE NIGHT SKY

Scientists have already begun to publish papers analyzing the effect all these satellites will have, not only on astronomy, but on the appearance of the night sky and the visibility of the stars to everyone on earth. An article published online on March 29, 2021 in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society by scientists in Slovakia, Spain and the United States is titled “The proliferation of space objects is a rapidly increasing source of artificial night sky brightness.” The scattering of sunlight from all of the objects in space, wrote the authors, is causing a “new skyglow” during the beginning and end of each night that has already brightened the natural night sky by about 10 percent. The authors are concerned that “the additional contribution of the new satellite mega-constellations” would ruin the night sky to a much greater extent. 

A group of Canadian astronomers have an article in the January 2022 issue of The Astronomical Journal. “Megaconstellations of thousands to tens of thousands of artificial satellites (satcons) are rapidly being developed and launched,” they write. “These satcons will have negative consequences for observational astronomy research, and are poised to drastically interfere with naked-eye stargazing worldwide.” They analyzed what the effect on astronomy will be if 65,000 new low-orbit satellites are launched. At 40 degrees latitude (mid-United States; Mediterranean; mid-China; Japan; Buenos Aires; New Zealand), say these authors, more than 1,000 of these satellites will be sunlit and visible in the sky in the summer even at midnight. At higher latitudes (northern U.S.; Canada; most of Europe; Russia), thousands of these satellites will be visible all night long. Another paper, titled Report on Mega-Constellations to the Government of Canada and the Canadian Space Agency, was commissioned by the Canadian Astronomical Society and submitted to the Canadian government on March 31, 2021. It is a moving document. These astronomers write:

 “In ancient times, humans everywhere in the world had access to completely dark skies. In stark contrast, today 80% of North Americans cannot see the Milky Way from where they live because of light pollution. The lack of darkness that many people now experience due to urban light pollution has been linked to many physical and mental health issues, both in humans and wildlife. But there are still pockets of darkness where urban-dwellers can escape the light pollution and experience skies nearly as dark as those seen by our ancestors. Unfortunately, light pollution from satellites will be a global phenomenon — there will be nowhere left on Earth to experience skies free from bright satellites in orbit.

“Anyone who has ever spent time in a truly dark place staring up at the stars understands the powerful feeling of connection and insignificance this act inspires. Our lives, our worries, even our entire planet seem so inconsequential on these scales — a feeling that has shaped literature, art, and culture around the globe. Seeing the night sky makes it immediately obvious that we are part of a vast and wondrous universe full of countless stars… Connecting to the sky is part of our humanity, and everyone in the world is in very real danger of losing that…

“With the naked eye, stargazing from a dark-sky location allows you to see about 4,500 stars… Once Starlink approaches 12,000 satellites in orbit, most people in Canada will see more satellites than stars in the sky.”

THE WORLD’S LARGEST GARBAGE PIT

And not only do thousands of whole satellites threaten the heavens, but a phenomenal amount of debris orbits the earth as a result of satellites colliding, or exploding, or otherwise being destroyed while in space. During the 64 years that humans have been launching rockets, the protective blankets of the ionosphere and magnetosphere have become the Earth’s largest garbage pit.

According to the European Space Agency there are, in orbit around the Earth today, 7,790 intact satellites, of which 4,800 are functioning. Since 1957, there have been more than 630 breakups, explosions, collisions, and other satellite-destroying events. This has resulted in the creation of more than 9,700 tons of space debris. There are, in orbit today:

  • 30,430 debris objects presently being tracked
  • 36,500 objects larger than 10 cm in size
  • 1,000,000 objects from 1 cm to 10 cm in size
  • 330,000,000 objects from 1 mm to 1 cm in size

EFFECTS ON OZONE, EARTHQUAKES, AND THUNDERSTORMS

Ozone

In a 2020 paper titled “The environmental impact of emissions from space launches: A comprehensive review,” Jessica Dallas and her colleagues at the University of New South Wales wrote that “ozone depletion is one of the largest environmental concerns surrounding rocket launches from Earth.”

In 2021, there were 146 orbital rocket launches to put 1,800 satellites into space. At that rate, to maintain and continually replace 100,000 low-earth-orbit satellites, which have an average lifespan of five years, would require more than 1,600 rocket launches per year, or more than four every day, forever into the future.

2020 and 2021 witnessed two of the largest Antarctic ozone holes since measurements began in 1979. The 2020 hole was also the longest-lasting on record, and the 2021 hole was only a few days shorter; larger than the continent of Antarctica, it began in late July 2021 and ended on December 28, 2021. Everyone is still blaming chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which were banned by the Montreal Protocol in 1978. Nobody is looking at rocket launches, of which there were more in 2020 and 2021 than in any previous year. In addition to the 146 orbital launches in 2021, there were 143 sub-orbital launches of rockets to over 80 kilometers in altitude, for a total of 289 high-altitude launches for the year, or almost one every day.

Earthquakes and Thunderstorms

In 2012, Anatoly Guglielmi and Oleg Zotov reviewed evidence that the global use of electricity has an effect on both seismic activity and thunderstorms. In particular, global electric power consumption spikes every hour on the hour, and so does the average number of earthquakes in the world. In 2020, a group of Italian scientists supplied additional information: solar activity also correlates with earthquakes, and it appears to do so by raising the voltage of the ionosphere. Since this must increase the current flow in the global electric circuit (see chapter 9 of my book, The Invisible Rainbow), it would increase the electric currents that flow through the earth’s crust at all times, which would increase the stress on earthquake faults and increase the frequency of earthquakes. The Italian paper’s title is “On the correlation between solar activity and large earthquakes worldwide.”

Whether 100,000 satellites, although emitting powerful radio waves, would raise the ionospheric voltage, is doubtful. However, the rocket exhaust from every launch emits tons of water vapor, which is more conductive than dry air. The stratosphere is dry and contains very little water, and any water humans put there remains there for years and accumulates. Multiple daily rocket launches, in perpetuity, will fill the stratosphere with water vapor, increase its conductivity, and increase the current flowing in the global electric circuit. The current flowing through the earth’s crust will increase, possibly increasing the frequency of earthquakes.

I also speculate that this would increase the frequency and power of thunderstorms worldwide. Were it not for thunderstorms, the ionospheric voltage, which averages 300,000 volts, would discharge in about 15 minutes. About 100 lightning strokes per second, somewhere on Earth, continuously recharge it. Increasing the current flow in the global electric circuit would discharge the ionosphere more quickly, and since it is thunderstorms that recharge the Earth’s battery, the frequency and violence of thunderstorms would have to increase.

ALTERATION OF THE EARTH’S ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT

What everyone is completely blind to is the effect of all the radiation from satellites on the ionosphere, and consequently on the life force of every living thing. The relationship of electricity to qi and prana has escaped the notice of modern humans. Atmospheric physicists and Chinese physicians have yet to share their knowledge with one another. And at this time, such a sharing is crucial to the survival of life on Earth.

“The pure Yang forms the heaven, and the turbid Yin forms the earth. The Qi of the earth ascends and turns into clouds, while the Qi of the heaven descends and turns into rain.” So the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine described the global electric circuit 2,400 years ago — the circuit that is generated by the ionosphere and that flows perpetually between the Yang (positive) heaven and the Yin (negative) earth. The circuit that connects us to earth and sky and that flows through our meridians giving us life and health. A circuit that must not be polluted with frequencies emitted by a hundred thousand satellites, some of whose beams will have an effective power of up to ten million watts. That is sheer insanity, and so far no one is paying attention. No one is even asking whether the satellites have anything to do with the profound and simultaneous decline, planetwide, in the number of insects and birds, and with the pandemic of sleep disorders and fatigue that so many are experiencing. Everyone is so focused on a virus, and on antennas on the ground, that no one is paying attention to the holocaust descending from space.

https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/441449-Low-Earth-Orbit-Satellites.pdf